Polymer flooring materials are already a little bored. Of course, they are durable, beautiful, have a long service life, and are easy to take care of. Producers try to make them environmentally friendly, but they remain synthetics, which for many are harmful. But the wooden floor has not lost its relevance. Many young consumers can say that this is a relic of the past, and there are many problems with it. Do not say – the wooden flooring is still in force, especially as lumber producers today offer excellent hardwood floorboards that can last a very long time.
In addition, the wooden floor is very nice to walk. It is he who can create a unique coziness inside the house, being at the same time an environmentally friendly natural material that does not cause any allergic reactions in consumers. In addition, the boards can be laid with their own hands, using the recommendations of specialists.
How is the process of creating a board floor?
Choosing the right wood floor
A very important point is the right choice of floor boards. Criteria of choice are many. Here, and the load on the floor, and the climate in your region, the purpose of the room and the amount of money allocated for flooring. For example, for small rooms, softwood flooring boards with low cost are suitable. They are available, have good strength and durability. Such a wooden floor is in an optimal price-quality ratio. If you want to use a wooden floor in a bedroom or a nursery, it is recommended to take hardwood floor boards from alder or aspen.
So, we buy wood for the floor in our own house and pay attention to the technical characteristics of the material:
- Wood should be dry, but not very. The wet board will necessarily lose its original shape, and the over-dried material will begin to deform.
- Particular attention should be paid to cracks, chips, wormhole and tar spots. All these are defects that must be excluded when choosing wooden floor boards.
- The length of the board should be at least 2 meters. Pay attention that all boards are from the same lot. This guarantees their identical processing, a similar shade and pattern, which is very important for the design of the room.
- To create a plank floor, choose an edging or grooving board, which will not allow additional material processing.
- And lastly – the volume of products should be 15% more than necessary – just in case.
How to install the flooring – Step-by-step
The wooden floor has two stacking technologies that are similar to each other. The floors can be mounted on logs or on joists. The first option is used for any basis – concrete, soil or wood flooring. The second – only on beams. The choice of technology will have to be based on the structure of the structure.
Before you begin the process of creating a floor, you must:
- First, bring the lumber to the premises where they will be used. Here they must lie at least 2-3 days in order to absorb the temperature and humidity of the room, that is, to adapt.
- Secondly, they must necessarily be treated with special solutions – antiseptics, which protect the wood from the negative effects of microorganisms, and flame retardants, due to which their refractoriness will increase.
Laying the floor on supports
Let’s take a look at the option of installing a plank floor on a concrete foundation. To do this, you first have to align the base to the maximum. It is necessary to fill the screed or self-leveling floors. What to choose, it’s up to you – everything will depend on the finances that you allocate for the creation of flooring, and the time that you have. The usual screed is cheaper, but you will have to wait long for it to dry out. The self-leveling material is more expensive, but it quickly seizes, which means that you will quickly move to the construction of a lagging structure.
So, the base is leveled, and it remains to cover it with waterproofing material. We recommend using a regular polyethylene film with a thickness of 200 microns.
Pay attention – if one strip can not cover the whole area, stack the material in several bands with a small overlap, which is necessarily fastened with a construction tape.
Everything is ready, and you can proceed to install the log. To do this, use bars of different sizes, which depends on the size of the room and the expected loads. If the size of the room is large enough, and the loads are considerable, then the optimal size of the bar is 50 × 100 millimeters. At lower indices, you can use a bar of 50 × 50 or 50 × 75 millimeters.
Installation begins with the installation of two bars, one of which is located at the far wall, and the second – at the opposite. The most important thing in this process is to set both elements horizontally and in the same plane. It’s not so easy, and sometimes even experienced masters spend a lot of time here. True, there is a simpler way, but more expensive.
The market today offers self-leveling floor legs, which are equipped with special lifting devices on the bolted joint. There is no need for wooden lining under each lag, and everything happens much easier. To do this, simply twist the screw that lowers or lifts the end of the lag.
So, the two elements are installed, aligned and fixed. By the way, fix the logs to the floor with ordinary dowels and long self-tapping screws. Now a strong thread is stretched between them in several rows. This will be a flat horizontal plane along which intermediate lags are exposed. Install them and attach. On this process, the devices of the lag structure can be considered finished. But there is another stage, which is now used everywhere – it is the insulation of the floor.
In the interglacial space, it is necessary to lay a heat-insulating material filling the volume to the edges of the lag. To do this, you can use mineral wool, polystyrene, expanded clay, expanded polystylyl, penofol and others. The most important thing is to cover the entire structure with one more layer of waterproofing material. The fact is that the wooden floor will have to be washed periodically with water. So, there is a possibility of leakage of fluid between the boards, which will lead to a rapid failure of the insulation.
Now it’s all – the preparatory process is over, and you can move on to the device of the board floor.
Arranging the boards
The technology of laying boards is not easy. The first element is laid against the wall, leaving a small gap – this will be ventilation. The gap is then closed with a plinth. The flooring board must be aligned parallel to the wall and fastened to the logs by nails or self-tapping screws.
Now choose the second element and arrange it so that the secular rings are facing away from the rings of the first board. Firmly press the board against the first element, but do not fix it. From the outer edge at a distance of 5-6 centimeters lay and nail the rail in full length parallel to the laid floor elements. Now between the rod and the second board, drive in several prepared wooden wedges to close the two planks firmly against each other. The second of them nail to the lags. Now remove the wedges and remove the rail. And this process must be repeated with all the elements of the board floor.
The most difficult moment is the installation of the last board. To do this, its edge, where the dowel is located, is cut with a plane and made even. Then install in the gap between the wall and the penultimate element, fastening with nails or self-tapping screws. In this case, the fastener is made to the edge of the board, which is closed with a plinth. Very often the wizard additionally glue the ends of the board so that it clings tightly to the previous element.
That’s all. Joints between boards must be grinded to hide small irregularities or protrusions. After that, they install skirting boards and carry out protective measures, for example, painting or applying varnish.
Floor installation on joists
What are joists? This is sawnwood in the form of logs or large size beams. They are usually installed on the foundation with a certain take-off. It turns out a kind of crate, capable of withstanding sufficiently large loads. But it is not always possible to set the beams in the same plane, because the foundation surface is usually uneven. You can lay the timber under the edges of the beams, carry out the alignment process, but this is very difficult.
Therefore, do not level the joists, but lags, which are installed across the beams. In this case, beams measuring 50 × 100 mm are used. The whole process is carried out according to the technology of installing the floor on a concrete base. That is, in the first place, two lags are exposed on opposite sides of the room, between which strings are stretched, along which intermediate elements are located. But here there is one feature related to the issues of insulation. Wooden floors are laid on the beams, which create a space between them and the ground.
There are two options – with the creation of the basement and without it. If the basement is planned, then the process of warming is easier. To do this, a waterproofing material is stretched over the beams on the underside, and a rough floor is made from boards or any flat materials, for example, from pieces of plywood. Then on top of the resulting niches is laid insulation, and on top of it – roll waterproofing. Then you can lay and fix the floorboards.
If there is no cellar in the house, the process of warming and laying the floor becomes more complicated and becomes more expensive. We will not dwell on all the details of this process, just indicate its main stages:
- On the beams of the flooring is laid the rough floor, for which different flat materials can be used. Choose the one that is cheaper.
- The waterproofing is laid on the draft floor.
- Then the logs are installed under the finished wooden floor.
- In the interglacial space, a heater is laid, on top of which another layer of waterproofing is covered.
- And the last thing is flooring the floorboards using the technology described above.
In this variant, the quantity of sawn timber is increased due to the use of the rough floor. Everything else is unchanged, even the technology is repeated.
As you can see, the installation of a engineered wooden floor is a complicated process, and at some stages even complicated. But my eyes are afraid, but my hands do. So do not be afraid of difficulties. It is necessary to understand all the nuances of the technological process, to acquire the right materials, to designate the stages of construction and begin to erect the wooden floor with your own hands.